Mishandling og seksuelle overgreb i barn- og ungdom

Undersøgelser fra flere lande, der indikerer, at kvinder i prostitution oftest har været udsat for overgreb i barndommen.

Lebenssituation sicherheit und gesundheit von frauen in Deutschland.

Street youth more likely to trade sex for food, shelter if they were abused as children, study finds
"New research led by Ryerson scientists have found that street youth who have been sexually abused as children are far more likely to engage in trading sex for food, shelter and other basic necessities.

Read more at: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-01-street-youth-sex-food-abused.html#jCp

Eaves 2012: Breaking down the barriers:  A study of how women exit prostitution 

The Involvement of Children in Commercial Sexual Activity.
New Zealandsk undersøgelse fra 2004.

The Involvement of Children in Commercial Sexual Activityhttp://www.ecpat.org.nz/Other/Researches/TheInvolvementOfChildreninSActivities.aspxUK

- Child prostitution linked to abuse and drugs 

The Children's Society says most people who had been prostitutes before the age of 18 say the situation is getting worse.
Its survey of 50 young adults who are or have been prostitutes found half had started at the age of 14. Two were only 11.
Fifty per cent said their first sexual experience was one of abuse and a quarter had been abused before they reached the age of 10.

Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia.

All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms."

Fra 1998: Antecedents to prostitution; childhood victimization.
Nadon, Susan m.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.
"A number of researchers have suggested that one long-term effect of sexual victimization is engaging in prostitution (Bagley & McDonald, 1984; Jehu & Gazan, 1983). Research population samples composed of prostitutes report high rates of childhood sexual abuse. For example, Silbert and Pines (1981) noted that 60% of the prostitutes participating in their study had experienced childhood sexual abuse. In a Canadian survey, 73% of the study sample of former prostitutes reported being sexually victimized as children (Bagley & Young, 1987). Earls and David (1990) found that 38% of the sample in their study of female prostitutes, and 60% of their sample of male prostitutes, had been targets of sexual abuse by a family member. "

"Adult prostitutes often recount a history of childhood physical abuse. In recent studies, 60% to 70% of prostitutes report being physically abused as children (Bagley & Young, 1987; Silbert, 1980). "

The relationship between adult sexual assault and prostitution: an exploratory analysis.

"Previous research has established a link between childhood sexual abuse and engaging in prostitution as an adult. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by exploring whether being raped as an adult is associated with exchanging sex for money. Interviews with 102 rape survivors in a major metropolitan area revealed that 23.5% had engaged in prostitution post-rape. "

"The Everyday Occurrence
Violence in the Lives of Girls Exploited Through Prostitution"


Canadisk undersøgelse af 47 kvinder i prostitution.

"More than two thirds of the women had become involved at age 15 or younger. The respondents described high rates of violence perpetrated against them. They reported considerable childhood sexual abuse, most often by a family member or by caretakers while they were living in foster care or group homes. The young women continued to experience violence as prostitutes so commonplace that it almost seemed “normal.”

En anden undersøgelse fra San Fransisco af 200 unge og voksne gadeprostituerede.
Sexual child abuse as an antecedent to prostitution

"A study of 200 juvenile and adult street prostitutes documented extremely high levels of sexual child abuse in their background. Sixty percent of the subjects were sexually exploited by an average of two people each, over an average period of 20 months. Two-thirds were sexually abused by father figures. The abuse had extremely negative emotional, physical, and attitudinal impacts. Seventy percent of the women reported that the sexual exploitation definitely affected their decision to become a prostitute."

http://www.thelocal.se/27870/20100719/ "25% of female inmates engaged in prostitution"

"Around 300 women are in prison in Sweden every year. Jenny Yourstone Cederwall, who conducted the study, told the programme that many of those who have sold sex frequently early in life have been sexually abused.

"These women have often early in their lives been victims of sexual abuse to a greater extent than female criminals in general," Yourstone Cederwall told Ekot. "They also have more difficult addiction abuse problems, for example."